Knowing the Roman imperial mints: X- Aquileia.
Aquileia was founded by the Romans in 181 a.C. receiving the Ius Latii, which marked it as a friend and allied of Rome, although with a lower legal rank than the colonies of Roman veterans/citizens. Ninety years later Aquileia gets the status of Roman municipality, evidence of a great economic prosperity based on its condition of starting point of several first-class commercial routes and also in its privileged geographical situation: very close to the confluence between the eastern and western halves of the Empire.
During the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD it stands as the main city in northern Italy and the nearby illiric area. Up to 100,000 inhabitants would live in Aquileia at this time, acting the city both as economic engine of a vast region and as first order stronghold: true key to access to the Italian peninsula by any invader from the north and east. This prosperity would continue during the Late Empire, manifesting itself in the construction of a large number of magnificent buildings among which stood a superb imperial palace, under whose walls Constantine I stayed with some frequency. Unfortunately the arrival of the dreadful 5th century would bring serious disturbances to the great Adriatic city: for its misfortune forced to serve as an advanced defense against the multiple invaders who longed to penetrate the Italian peninsula to plunder its still intact riches. Effectively, in the year 401 and again in 408 Aquileia must withstand two sieges by the vandals of King Alaric, falling finally in 452 before the fierce Huns of Attila. The destruction that followed this conquest was so complete that the city never again recovered even a fraction of its former splendor. In fact the majority of the survivors of the brutal sacking moved to a zone of lagoons located to 13 kilometers, founding a establishment that by its eminently lacustrine character was very difficult to attack by invaders like the Huns, based on massive forces of cavalry. This settlement would give rise over time to the magnificent Venice, whose lordship over the region would remain unchallenged for many centuries, reducing the classical Aquileia (or rather what was left of it) to the status of small feudal village dependent on Venice.
Photo 1.- Ruins of a porticoed street in the ancient site of Aquileia (North Italy).
Although the current Aquileia is well worth a visit because of its well-preserved medieval churchs, there is little that retains its Roman past due to the deep reuse of its materials that the growth of Venice caused. In photo 1 we can see the ruins of a porticoed street exhumed during the few archaeological excavations that have been made in the site, which in fact remains unexcavated almost in its entirety.
The monetary emissions of Aquileia begin in 294 AD on the occasion of the election of the city as the seat of one of the new monetary mints established by Diocletian to supply the Empire with cash. It coins the three metals, in moderate quantities in all cases, being their bronzes not scarce but yes quite less frequent than those of the Gallic or Eastern mints. It is also worth mentioning the good quality of its monetary production, characterized by well-coined pieces, of a slightly oriental, Balkan, style, far removed from Western art: more realistic, typical of the emissions of Lugdunum, Treveri or Rome.
The mint of Aquileia will maintain three operative offices during the tetrarchian period, reserving the first two to the augusti and the third to the caesars. It will be closed by Constantine in 324 and reopened again by the same sovereign in 334. Its three offices will continue producing coins until 364, when one of them closes. Hereafter the minting will continue in two workshops, although considerably diminished in terms of volume of emission. The final closure of the mint occurs during the reign of Valentinian III, in the year 437 at the latest. The exemplars of photos 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 correspond to coins minted between 300 and 350 AD.
Photo 2.- Follis coined in the second office of Aquileia on behalf of the western augustus Maximianus Herculius in the year 300. Bronze with slight silver alloy.
Photo 3.- Follis coined in the first office of Aquileia on behalf of the western augustus Constantius Chlorus in 305; this is, in the early stages of the second Tetrarchy. Bronze. The reverse FIDES MILITVM, allusive to the fidelity of the army to its emperor, is something rare as well as exclusive to the northern Italy mints: Aquileia and Ticinum.
Photo 4.- Follis coined in the first office of Aquileia on behalf of Maximianus Herculius in his condition as father of the usurper Maxentius. Year 307. Bronze. Like the mint of Rome, that of Aquileia also struck coins in the name of the usurper Maxentius and his father, Maximianus Herculius.
Photo 5.- Maiorina minted in the first office of Aquileia during the period 348-350 in on behalf of Constantius II: emperor of the eastern half of the Empire. The coin was minted under the government of Constans, the western emperor.
Photo 6.- Maiorina coined in the third office of Aquileia by the western usurper Magnentius in the year 350. The first monetary issues of Magnentius are very sought-after by collectors due to their great quality, beauty and size. It is obvious that the usurper tried to legitimize himself by the minting of very showy coins, carrying propagandistic messages of more than proven effectiveness such as the emperor on horseback, spearing to an enemy of Rome.